Sultan Kiram

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Photo shows Sultan Jamal ul-Kiram (seated centre), his staff, US Army officers and some foreign Muslims, circa 1899-1901.HISTORY 1899-1901In reality, Bates never intended to ratify the [Bates] treaty. As Bates would later confess, the agreement was merely a temporary expedient to buy time until the northern forces were defeated.

In addition, Sultan Jamal ul-Kiram and his datus (tribal chiefs) were to receive monthly payments in return for flying the American flag and for allowing the U.S. the right to occupy lands on the islands.

The Sultan did not wish to acknowledge US sovereignty but was prevailed upon to accept it by his prime minister and adviser Hadji Butu Abdul Bagui (LEFT) and two of his top ranking datus, Datu Jolkanairn and Datu Kalbi. Hadji Bagui, recognizing the folly of armed resistance, exerted all his influence to prevent another bloody war. Hadji Bagui and his son, Hadji Gulamu Rasul later favored integration of Moros into the Philippine republic.

The Bates Treaty did not last very long. After the U.S. had completed its goal of suppressing the resistance in northern Philippines, it unilaterally abrogated the Bates Treaty on March 2, 1904, claiming the Sultan had failed to quell Moro resistance and that the treaty was a hindrance to the effective colonial administration of the area.

Payments to the Sultan and his datus were also stopped but were restored by the US Philippine Commission in November 1904.

But in reality, Bates never intended to ratify the treaty. As Bates would later confess, the agreement was merely a temporary expedient to buy time until the northern forces were defeated.

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